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Citing Sources & Style Guides like MLA and APA

Use this guide to identify books, websites, social media feeds, and citation management programs to help you follow the correct style, including correct citation formats, for your classes.


The APA Publication Manual is the style manual of choice for writers, researchers, editors, students, and educators in the social and behavioral sciences, natural sciences, nursing, communications, education, business, engineering, and other fields.  The Pace Libraries own several copies of the new APA manual as well as the previous editions. Check with your professor to confirm whether the 7th edition or the 6th edition should be consulted.


MLA style is used mostly by students of the humanities, particularly English, comparative literature, and the performing arts. MLA puts out two publications, each of which cover more or less the same material, but with slightly different emphases. The MLA Style Manual is geared more towards graduate students and facultyThe MLA Handbook, more well known, is usually the choice for undergraduates.


Kate Turabian's Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (below) is the student version of the CMS.

AMA / ICMJE(Vancouver) / NLM

The 11h edition of the AMA Manual of Style is on reserve at Beekman and in the Reference collection at Mortola.

AMA is an author-number style, which means a number is placed in the text to correspond to the author name(s) in the reference list, which are listed numerically in order of appearance. A Guide to Citing the AMA Manual of Style is available online.

The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) offers guidance to authors in its publication Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals (ICMJE Recommendations). A list of journals that follow the ICMJE recommendations is here.

The ICMJE no longer publishes a list of reference formats, but instead recommends that authors follow the ANSI standard style adapted by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) for its databases. For samples of reference citation formats, authors should consult NLM’s  Citing Medicine, 2nd edition: the NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers," which was published in 2007 and updated in 2015.

The Associated Press Stylebook 2018 and Briefing on Media Law


Publishing in the field of physics is not guided by a particular style guide at this time. Ask your professor what style to follow.

  • The Williams College Libraries have a very good help page for ACS style.

The Writing Center at the University of Wisconsin (Madison) has an excellent CSE help page